The University of Liège has always had a stellar for European law. Over the years, no less than five professors of the Faculty of Law have been appointed as Judges to the European Court of Justice:

  • Pierre PESCATORE,
  • René JOLIET,
  • Melchior WATHELET,
  • Franklin DEHOUSSE, and

Additionnally, the Liege Competition and Innovation Institute follows on from a long tradition of excellence in the field of competition law.

Numerous seminal studies on competition law have been published by ULiège Professors of law who are still authoritative in the field:

  • Leon DABIN,
  • Charly del MARMOL,
  • Aurelio PAPPALARDO,
  • Paul DEMARET,
  • Jean-François BELLIS,
  • Damien GERADIN.

In retrospect, those names constitute a true Liege School of Competition Law.


Charley del MARMOL

Born 1912; Full-Professor at the Université de Liège; active member of the Belgian Banking and Finance Commission; Founder of the Commission of Law and Life of Businesses of the University and Liege; Founder of the Belgian Centre for Arbitration and Mediation (CEPANI); Member of the Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique; died 2000.




Born in Luxembourg on 20 November 1919; Luxembourg national; Doctor of Laws; Legal Adviser, Political Director and Permanent Secretary in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (1946-67); Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Law of the University of Liège (1951); Co-founder of the Institute of European Legal Studies at the University of Liège (1963); Professor Extraordinary and holder of the Chair in European Community Law (1965); Associate Member of the Institute of International Law at the session in Warsaw (1965); Member of the Moral and Political Science Section of the Grand-Ducal Institute (1967); Judge at the Court of Justice from 9 October 1967 to 7 October 1985; died on 2 February 2010.


  • P. PESCATORE, “Fundamental Rights and Freedoms in the System of the European Communities”, Am. J. Comp. L., 18, 1970, p. 343.
  • P. PESCATORE, “External Relations in the Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities”, Common Market Law Review 16, no. 4, 1979, pp. 615-45.
  • P. PESCATORE, “Public and Private Aspects of European Community Competition Law”, Fordham Int’l LJ, 10, 1986, p. 373.
  • P. PESCATORE, “Some Critical Remarks on the “Single European Act”.”, Common Market Law Review, 24, no. 1, 1987, pp. 9-18.
  • P. PESCATORE, “The Gatt Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Its Present Situation and Its Prospects.” Journal of World Trade, 27, no. 1, 1993, pp. 5-20.
  • P. PESCATORE, “Opinion 1/94 on ‘Conclusions of the WTO Agreement: Is There an Escape from a Programmed Disaster?”, Common Market Law Review, 36, no. 2, 1999, pp. 387-405.
  • P. PESCATORE, “The Doctrine of” Direct Effect”: An Infant Disease of Community Law”, European Law Review, no. 2, 2015, pp. 135-53.


Born 1936. Professor Aurelio Pappalardo is a renowned specialist in European Union law and dedicates his extensive expertise to both domestic and cross-border Antitrust matters. He was a professor of EU law and competition at the European College of Bruges from 1969 to 1994. From 1986 to 2001, he served as a Professor of EU law at the University of Liege.

In 1960, he began a career that spanned twenty-six years at the European Commission. He assumed a variety of roles including department head and General-Director of Competition. Among his wide-ranging duties, he was responsible for applying competition law and regulation to publicly held entities.

Aurelio Pappalardo regularly appeared before the Commission and the Italian Antitrust Authority, as well as before the European Courts. Professor Aurelio Pappalardo served on the Belgian Antitrust Authority from 1993 to 1999.


  • A. PAPPALARDO, Measures of the States and Rules of Competition of the Eec Treaty. Annual Proceedings of Fordham Corporate Law Institute, 1984.
  • A. PAPPALARDO, “Politique Communautaire De Concurrence Et Progrès Technologique”, Revue internationale de droit économique, 1, 1986, pp. 89-114.
  • A. PAPPALARDO, “Government Equity Participation under the Eec Rules on State Aids: Recent Developments”, Fordham Int’l LJ, 11, 1987, p. 310.
  • A. PAPPALARDO, “Le Règlement Cee Sur Le Contrôle Des Concentrations”, Revue internationale de droit économique, 1990, pp. 3-65.
  • A. PAPPALARDO, “State Measures and Public Undertakings: Article 90 of the Eec Treaty Revisited”, ECLR, 12, no. 1, 1991, pp. 29-39.
  • A. PAPPALARDO, “Les nouvelles règles en matière de contrôle communautaire des concentrations d’entreprises”, Revue internationale de droit économique, 12, 1998, pp. 177-230.
  • A. PAPPALARDO, Il Diritto Comunitario Della Concorrenza: Profili Sostanziali; La Disciplina Delle Intese, Gli Accordi Orizzontali, Gli Accordi Verticali, L’abuso Di Posizione Dominante, Le Concentrazioni Di Imprese, Il Trasferimento Di Tecnologia, Regole Di Concorrenza E Poteri Pubblici, I Settori Speciali. UTET giuridica, 2007.


Born on 17 January 1938; Belgian national; Ordinary Professor (1974-84) and Special Professor (from 1984), Faculty of Law, University of Liège (Chair of European Community Law); Holder of the Belgian Chair at the University of London, King’s College (1977); Visiting Professor at the University of Nancy (1971-78), the Europa Institute of the University of Amsterdam (1976-85), the Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve (1980-82) and Northwestern University, Chicago (1974 and 1983); Teacher of European Competition Law at the College of Europe, Bruges (1979-84); Judge at the Court of Justice from 10 April 1984 to 15 July 1995, the date of his death.



Leon DABIN was Full-Professor at the Université de Liège. He was an active member of the Banking and Finance Commission and of the Commission of Law and Life of Businesses of the University of Liege during many years.


  • L. DABIN and C. DEL MARMOL, L’apport des juristes à la solution des problèmes de la gestion des affaires, Commission Droit et vie des affaires, Liège, 1963, 120 p.


Born 1941. Professor Demaret was Rector of the College of Europe from 2003 to 2013 and is “professeur extraordinaire” at the University of Liège. Professor Demaret was the Director of Legal Studies at the College of Europe from 1981 to 2003.

Professor Demaret holds a Docteur en droit from University of Liège, an LL.M. from Columbia University, and a J.S.D. from U.C. Berkeley.

His current and past teaching subjects include: European economic law (University of Liège and College of Europe); Comparative economic law: EC-US (University of Liège); the external dimension of the EC internal market (University of Liège).

His publications are mainly in the field of European Community law (European intellectual property law, European competition law, free movement of goods, Free movement of persons, Common commercial policy) and International Trade Law (Regional Integration Agreements/GATT/WTO). In 1999, he was awarded a Robert Schuman professorship at Peking University (EU-China Higher Education cooperation programme). He served on two WTO panels.

Bibliography :

  • P. DEMARET, « L’application du droit communautaire de la concurrence dans une économie mondiale globalisée. La problématique de l’extraterritorialité. », in X., La politique communautaire de la concurrence face à la mondialisation et à l’élargissement de l’Union européenne, 1992, p. 13
  • P. DEMARET, Patents, Territorial Restrictions, and EEC Law (Patente, territoriale Beschränkungen und EWG-Gesetz), IIC Studies in Industrial Property and Copyright Law, Vol. 2, 197, published by the Max-Planck-Institut for Foreign and International Patent, Copyright and Competition Law), Munich Munich. Verlag Chemie, Weinheimww York 1978, 133 p.
  • P. DEMARET, “Le brevet communautaire après Centrafarm : un instrument dépassé ou inachevé ?”, Rev.trim. dr.eur., 1977, 1.


Born 1949; degrees in law and in economics (University of Liège); Master of Laws (Harvard University, United States); Doctor honoris causa (Université Paris-Dauphine); Professor of European Law at the Catholic University of Louvain and the University of Liège; Deputy (1977-95); State Secretary, Minister and Minister-President of the Walloon Region (1980-88); Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Justice and for Small and Medium-Sized Businesses, the Liberal Professions and the Self-Employed (1988-92); Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for Justice and Economic Affairs (1992-95); Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for National Defence (1995); Mayor of Verviers (1995); Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities (1995-2003); legal adviser, then counsel (2004-12); Minister of State (2009-12); Advocate General at the Court of Justice since 8 October 2012 (First Advocate General since October 2015).


  • M. WATHELET, “Pratiques concertées et comportements parallèles en oligopole : le cas matières colorantes” in Université de Liège [ULg], Faculté de droit (1973), 68 p.
Bellis 2

Jean-François BELLIS

Born 1949. Jean-François Bellis is founding partner of the law firm Van Bael & Bellis, based in Brussels and Geneva. He is a renowned specialist in competition and international trade law.

In the field of competition law, Jean-François Bellis has advised international clients in numerous cases at EU and national level involving a broad range of antitrust issues, including cartels, abuses of a dominant position, mergers, distribution and licensing. Jean-François Bellis has extensive litigation experience in EU competition and trade cases. He has been involved in a large number of the major competition and trade cases in front of the European Courts.

Previously, he served as Référendaire to Judge Lord McKenzie Stuart at the Court of Justice of the European Communities and was appointed member of a WTO panel. He is graduated from the University of Brussels (ULB) and holds an LL.M. from the University of Michigan Law School (USA).

Jean-François Bellis is Lecturer at the University of Liège, and Professor at the ULB. Jean-François Bellis has written numerous books and articles in the field of competition and trade law and has spoken on these subjects at many international conferences and seminars.


  • J. BELLIS, « Solutions négociées : Les procédures d’engagements, dérive ou atout dans la répression des pratiques anticoncurrentielles ? », Concurrences, N° 3-2015 ;
  • J. BELLIS,, « The European Commission fines eleven producers for operating a cartel on the high-voltage power cable market », Bulletin e-Competitions, 2 avril 2014
  • J. BELLIS,, « La charge de la preuve en matière de concurrence devant les juridictions de l’Union européenne », in X., Contentieux de l’Union européenne. Questions choisies, – 2014, pp. 217-234
  • J. BELLIS and C. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement européen sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er juillet 2013 – 30 juin 2014) », J.D.E., 2014, liv. 211, pp. 291-297
  • J. BELLIS and N. PETIT, « Le droit de la concurrence : précautions utiles lors de la rédaction d’un contrat de distribution », in X., Actualités en matière de rédaction des contrats de distribution, 2014, pp. 39-62
  • J. BELLIS, « The European Court of Justice dismisses appeals brought against the AIG cartel case (Siemens, Mitsubishi Electric, Toshiba) », Bulletin e-Competitions, 19 décembre 2013
  • J. BELLIS, « Article 102 TFEU: The case for a remedial enforcement Model along the lines of section 5 of the FTC Act », Concurrences, N° 1-2013, pp. 54-61
  • J. BELLIS, M. COQUELET RUIZ, V. LEFEVER, « Examen de jurisprudence (2006 à 2011). Troisième partie. Droit économique de l’Union européenne. Droit européen de la concurrence », R.C.J.B., 2013, liv. 4, pp. 625-766
  • J. BELLIS and J. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement européen sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er juillet 2012 – 30 juin 2013) », J.D.E., 2013, liv. 201, pp. 275-282
  • J. BELLIS, « L’accusé a toujours le dernier mot », Concurrences, N° 1-2012, pp. 1-2
  • J. BELLIS, C. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er juillet 2011 – 30 juin 2012) », J.D.E., 2012, liv. 191, pp. 224-228
  • J. BELLIS, “Le “Livre blanc” sur la modernisation des règles d’application des articles 81 et 82 du Traité C.E., J. T. eur., 2000, p. 129
  • J. BELLIS, P. ELLIOTT, J. VAN ACKE, “The current state of the EU merger control system: Ten areas where improvements could be made”, 2012
  • J. BELLIS, « Legal professional privilege : An overview of EU and national case law », Bulletin e-Competitions, 26 octobre 2011
  • J. BELLIS, K. VAN HOVE and E. KAMEOKA, Latest developments in EU cartel enforcement – the first Commission settlement decision (EC Competition), Journal of the Japanese Institute of International Business Law, 38 (12) December 2010, pp. 1641-9
  • J. BELLIS, C. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er juillet 2010 – 30 juin 2011), J.D.E., 2011, liv. 181, pp. 210-214
  • J. BELLIS, « L’impact de la modernisation du droit européen de la concurrence sur la façon dont l’article 101 TFUE est désormais appliqué par la Commission », REDC. Droits de la concurrence et de la consommation: les spécificités de l’approche européenne, 2010, liv. 3-4, pp. 617-635
  • J. BELLIS,C. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er juillet 2009 – 30 juin 2010) », J.D.E., 2010, liv. 171, pp. 218-223
  • J. BELLIS, « L’ouverture du capital des sociétés d’avocats à des tiers non-avocats: quelques éléments de réflexion préliminaires au regard du droit de la concurrence », in X. Confraternité et concurrence, À la recherche d’une déontologie inspirée, 2009
  • J. BELLIS, C. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er janvier 2008 – 30 juin 2009) », J.D.E., 2009, liv. 161, pp. 214-220
  • J. BELLIS, « Politique de concurrence et crise économique », J.T. 2009, liv. 6359, pp. 457-459
  • J. BELLIS, G. GODDIN, L. DEFALQUE, M. DONY, « Examen de jurisprudence (1993 à 2005). Droit économique de la Communauté européenne : Droit européen de la concurrence – Le marché intérieur – Aides d’Etat », R.C.J.B. 1ère partie: 2007, liv. 2, 227-352, 2ème partie: 2007, liv. 3, 447-530, 3ème partie: 2008, liv. 1, pp. 73-156
  • J. BELLIS, C. NASSOGNE, « L’application du règlement sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er janvier 2006 – 31 décembre 2007) », J.D.E. 2008, liv. 151, pp. 211-216
  • J. BELLIS, « Les nouvelles lignes directrices de la Commission pour le calcul des amendes. Une première évaluation », R.C.B., 2007, liv. 3, pp. 4-12
  • J. BELLIS, « Quel bilan de la réforme de la DG Concurrence  ? », Concurrences, N° 2-2007, pp. 8-15
  • J. BELLIS, « L’application du règlement sur le contrôle des concentrations (1er janvier 2004 – 31 décembre 2005) », J.T. dr. eur., 2006, liv. 131, pp. 205-211
  • J. BELLIS, K. VAN HOVE, M. FAVART, European Union and Belgium in Leniency Regimes, The European Lawyer, 2006
  • J. BELLIS, M. FAVART, « Régime de clémence en droit communautaire et interactions avec les régimes nationaux », C.S.A. 2006, liv. 9, pp. 133-150
  • J. BELLIS, « Le droit communautaire de la concurrence » in X., Les 25 marchés émergents du droit, 2006, pp. 3-20
  • J. BELLIS, « Accords de distribution et autres types d’accords verticaux », in X., Concurrence. Aspects pratiques auxquels les juristes doivent être attentifs, 2006, pp. 111-138
  • J. BELLIS, « Banque, assurance, services financiers et droit européen de la concurrence », in X., Bancassurfinance, 2005, pp. 517-547
  • J. BELLIS, « Le régime des concentrations », in X., Aspects récents du droit de la concurrence, 2005, pp. 53-74
  • J. BELLIS, « Societas europaea – was it worth waiting? », in X., Liber Amicorum Jean-Pierre de Bandt, 2005, pp. 307-327
  • J. BELLIS, « Les critères de la distorsion de concurrence et de l’effet sur le commerce interétatique », in X., Aides d’Etat, 2005, 97-106
  • J. BELLIS, M. FAVART, « Le contrôle juridictionnel sur les décisions d’admissibilité d’une concentration par le Conseil de la concurrence après l’arrêt Editeco », J.T., 2005, liv. 6203, pp. 765-770
  • J. BELLIS, K. VAN HOVE, « Multiple enforcement and forum shopping after 1 May 2004: fear for fear’s sake? » in X., Modernisation and enlargement: two major challenges for EC competition law, 2005, pp. 171-184
  • J. BELLIS and I. VAN BAEL, Competition Law of the European Community, 4th edition, Kluwer Law International, 2005.
  • J. BELLIS, « Les relations entre le droit national et le droit communautaire de la concurrence », in X., La décentralisation dans l’application du droit de la concurrence. Un rôle accru pour le praticien?, 2004, pp. 61-72
  • J. BELLIS, « La détermination des amendes pour infraction au droit communautaire de la concurrence – Bilan de cinq années d’application des lignes directrices de 1998 », C.D.E. 2003, liv. 3-4, 373-397.
  • J. BELLIS, « Les droits de la défense des entreprises dans les procédures d’enquête engagées par la commission à la lumière des dispositions du règlement n° 17 et de la pratique administrative de la commission, in X., Conférence du jeune Barreau. Après-midi de Droit Européen. 10 janvier 1991, 2003, pp. 21-40
  • J. BELLIS, « The pharmaceutical industry and EC Competition Law. A vexed relationship », in X., Antitrust Between EC Law and National Law III, 2003, pp. 485-498
  • J. BELLIS, « Les défis de la modernisation du droit européen de la concurrence », J.T. dr. eur. 2003, liv. 97, pp. 73-74.
  • J. BELLIS, « Le droit européen de la concurrence en pleine effervescence », Journ. jur. 2001, liv. 3, p. 9.
  • J. BELLIS, « La politique de la concurrence et l’organisation mondiale du commerce », in X., Mélanges en hommage à Michel Waelbroeck, 2001, pp. 737-764.
  • J. BELLIS, (éd.), La politique communautaire de la concurrence face à la mondialisation et à l’élargissement de l’Union européenne, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2001.
  • J. BELLIS, « Le ‘Livre blanc’ sur la modernisation des règles d’application des articles 81 et 82 du Traité C.E. Un pas décisif vers le démantèlement d’un particularisme européen », J.T. dr. eur. 2000, pp. 129-134.
  • J. BELLIS, « Les accords de recherche et de développement et le droit européen de la concurrence », in X., Recherche et développement d’un produit, 2000, pp. 75-94.
  • J. BELLIS, « Liberalization and the Creation of Strategic Alliances » in X., The Liberalization of State Monopolies in the European Union and Beyond, Kluwer, 2000.
  • J. BELLIS, “Les accords de recherche et de développement et le droit européen de la concurrence” in Le droit des affaires en évolution, 2000.
  • J. BELLIS, « The Treatment of Dumping, subsidies and Anti-competitive Practices in Regional Trade Agreements », in X., Regionalism and Multilateralism after the Uruguay Round. Convergence, Divergence and Interaction, 1998, 363-387
  • J. BELLIS,« La banque et le droit communautaire de la concurrence », in X., Mélanges Jean Pardon, 1997, 1-20.
  • J. BELLIS and I. VAN BAEL, Competition Law of the European Community, 1995


Born 1959; law degree (University of Liege, 1981); Research Fellow (Fonds national de la recherche scientifique, 1985-89); Legal Adviser to the Chamber of Representatives (1981-90); Doctor of Laws (University of Strasbourg, 1990); Professor (Universities of Liege and Strasbourg; College of Europe; Institut royal supérieur de Défense; Université Montesquieu, Bordeaux; Collège Michel Servet of the Universities of Paris; Faculties of Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur); Special Representative of the Minister for Foreign Affairs (1995-99); Director of European Studies of the Royal Institute of International Relations (1998-2003); assesseur at the Council of State (2001-03); consultant to the European Commission (1990-2003); member of the Internet Observatory (2001-03); Judge at the General Court since 7 October 2003.



Born 1966. Prof. Geradin was Full Professor at the University of Liege and is the founder of the LLM in EU Competition & IP Law. He is currently a Professor of Competition Law & Economics at Tilburg University (the Netherlands) and at George Mason University School of Law (Washington, DC). He is also a visiting Professor at University College London. Damien has also held visiting Professorships at Columbia Law School, Harvard Law School, the University of Michigan Law School, UCLA School of Law, and the College of Europe, Bruges. He was a visiting lecturer at the University of Paris II (Assas) and at King’s College London, and also a Fullbright scholar and visiting lecturer at Yale Law School.

Damien has acted as an expert witness in numerous arbitration and litigation proceedings. His work has been cited by the Court of Justice of the EU, the US Supreme Court, various US Court of Appeals, and regulatory proceedings.



  • EU Cartel Law & Economics (with Hans Zenger), Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2015.
  • Restrições Verticais Adotadas por Empresas Dominantes (with Caio Mário da Silva Pereira Neto), Thomson Reuters, 2013
  • EU Competition Law & Economics (with Anne Layne-Farrar and Nicolas Petit), Oxford University Press, March 2012, 600 pp.
  • Global Antitrust Law and Economics (with Einer Elhauge), Foundation Press, March 2007 (2nd Edition 2011), 1287 pp.
  • Global Competition Law and Economics (with Einer Elhauge), Hart Publishing, March 2007 (2nd Edition 2011), 1287 pp.
  • Competition Law and Regional Economic Integration: An Analysis of the Southern Mediterranean Countries (World Bank Working Papers), 2004, 106 pp.
  • Controlling Market Power in Telecommunications (with M. Kerf), Oxford University Press, 2003, 400 pp.
  • Trade and the Environment – A Comparative Analysis of EC and US Law, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 228 pp.

Contributing Editor

  • EU Law and Life Sciences (with Peter Bogaert), Institute of Competition Law, forthcoming 2014, 269 pp.
  • Research Handbook in European Competition Law, (with Ioannis Lianos), Edward Elgar, 2013:
    • Volume I, Substantive Aspects, 665 pp.
    • Volume II, Enforcement and Procedure, 624 pp.
  • Regulation through Agencies in the EU: A New Paradigm of European Governance (with Rodolphe Munoz and Nicolas Petit), Edward Elgar, 2006, 280 pp.
  • Modernisation and Enlargement: Two Major Challenges for EC Competition Law, Intersentia, 2004.
  • Remedies in Network Industries, Intersentia, 2004, 264 pp.
  • The WTO and Global Convergence in Telecommunications and Audio-Visual Services (with David Luff), Cambridge University Press, 2004, 468 pp.
  • The Liberalization of Postal Services in the European Union, Kluwer Law International, Kluwer Law International, 2002, 415 pp.
  • The Liberalization of the Electricity and Natural Gas Markets in the European Union, Kluwer Law International, 2001, 307 pp.
  • Regulatory Competition and Economic Integration: Comparative Perspectives (with Dan Esty), Oxford University Press, 2000, 433 pp.
  • The Liberalization of State Monopolies in the European Union and Beyond, Kluwer Law International, 1999, 369 pp.
  • Recent Developments in EC Environmental Law, Kluwer, 1997
  • Trade and the Environment – The Search for Balance, Cameron & May, 1994 (co-edited with Paul Demaret and James Cameron), Vol. I, 475 pp & Vol. II, 748 pp.

Consultant editor

  • International Environmental Law Reports, Vol. 2, Trade and Environment, Cambridge University Press, 2001, 787 pp.


  • Collective Redress for Antitrust Damages in the European Union: Is this a Reality Now?, 23 (2015) George Mason University Law Review.
  • Loyalty Rebates after Intel: Time for the European Court of Justice to Overrule Hoffman-La Roche, 11 (3) (2015) Journal of Competition Law & Economics, 579.
  • The Uncertainties Created by Relying on the Vague “Competition on the Merits” Standard in the Pharmaceutical Sector: The Italian Pfizer/Pharmacia case, 5 (2014) Journal of European Competition Law & Practice, 344.
  • The Meaning of “Fair and Reasonable” in the Context of Third-Party Determination of FRAND Terms, 21 (2014) George Mason University Law Review 919.
  • Reverse-Payment Patent Settlements in the Pharmaceutical Industry: An analysis of US antitrust law and EU competition law, 59 (2014) Antitrust Bulletin (with Michael Clancy and Andrew Lazerow)
  • Data Protection in the Context of Competition Law Investigations: An Overview of the Challenges, 37 (2014) World Competition 69 (with Monika Kuschewsky)
  • 2012 Framework on Public Compensation for SGEIs: Application in the Postal Sector, (2013) Competition and Regulation in Network Industries (with Christos Malamataris)
  • Competition Law and Personal Data: Preliminary Thoughts on a Complex Issue, 2 (2013) Revue Concurrences (with Monika Kuschewsky)
  • Ten Years of DG Competition Effort to Provide Guidance on the Application of Competition Rules to the Licensing of Standard-Essential Patents: Where Do We Stand?, 9 (2013) Journal of Competition Law & Economics 1125.
  • Antitrust compliance programmes and optimal antitrust enforcement: A reply to Wouter Wils, (2013) Journal of Antitrust Enforcement 1.
  • Identifying Two-Sided Markets, 36 (2013) World Competition, 33 (with Lapo Filistrucchi and Eric Van Damme)
  • For a Rigorous “Effects-Based” Analysis of Vertical Restraints Adopted by Dominant Firms: A Comparison of EU and Brazilian competition law, 9 (Spring 2013), Competition Policy International, 30 (with Caio Mario da Silva Pereira Neto)
  • Public Compensation for Services of General Economic Interest: An Analysis of the 2011 European Commission Framework, 2 (2012), European State Aid Law Quarterly 51.
  • Elves or Trolls? The Role of Non-Practicing Patent Owners in the Innovation Economy, 20 (2011) Industrial and Corporate Change (with Anne Layne-Farrar and Jorge Padilla)
  • Patent Value Apportionment Rules for Complex, Multi-Patent Products, 27 (2011) Santa Clara University’s Computer & High Tech Law Journal, 763 (with Anne Layne-Farrar)
  • Interpreting and Enforcing the Voluntary FRAND Commitment, 9 International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research, 1 (2011) (with Roger Brooks)
  • FRAND Commitment and EC Competition Law: A Reply to Philippe Chappatte, (2010) European Competition Journal 129.
  • The Decision of the Commission of 13 May 2009 in the Intel Case: Where is the Foreclosure and Consumer Harm?, 1 Journal of European Competition Law & Practice (2010)
  • Pricing Abuses by Essential Patent Holders in a Standard-Setting Context: A View from Europe, (2009) 76 Antitrust Law Journal 329.
  • A Proposed Test for Separating Pro–competitive Conditional Rebates from Anti–competitive Ones (2009) 32 World Competition, 41
  • Market Definition in Two-Sided Markets: Theory and Practice, forthcoming Journal of Competition Law & Economics (2014) (with Lapo Filistrucchi and Eric Van Damme Forthcoming
  • Competing Away Market Power? An Economic Assessment of Ex Ante Auctions in Standard Setting, 4 (2008) European Competition Journal (2008), 443 (with Anne-Layne-Farrar and Jorge Padilla)
  • The Complements Problem Within Standard Setting: Assessing the Evidence on Royalty Stacking, 14, (2008) Boston University Journal of Science & Technology Law, 144 (with Anne-Layne-Farrar and Jorge Padilla)
  • Revisiting Injunctive Relief: Interpreting eBay in High-Tech Industries with Non-Practicing Patent Holders, (2008) 4 Journal of Competition Law and Economics 571 (with Vincenzo Denicolo, Anne-Layne-Farrar and Jorge Padilla)
  • Can Standard-Setting Lead to Exploitative Abuse? A Dissonant View on Patent Hold-up, Royalty-Stacking and the Meaning of FRAND, (2007) 3 European Competition Law Journal, 101 (with Miguel Rato)
  • The logic and limits of ex ante competition in a standard-setting environment, 3 (2007) Competition Policy International (with Anne Layne-Farrar)
  • Standardization and Technological Innovation: Some Reflections on Ex-ante Licensing, FRAND, and the Proper Means to Reward Innovators, 29 (2006) World Competition 511
  • Price Discrimination Under EC Competition Law: Another Antitrust Theory in Search of Limiting Principles, 2 (2006) Journal of Competition Law and Economics. 479 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • Damien Geradin, Droit de la concurrence et recours en annulation à l’ère post-modernisation 2005 Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen 795 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • The Concurrent Application of Competition Law and Regulation: The Case of Margin Squeeze Abuses in the Telecommunications Sector, 2 (2005) Journal of Competition Law and Economics, 355 (with Robert O’Donoghue)
  • The Future of the Postal Monopoly: American and European Perspectives after the Presidential Commission and Flamingo Industries, 28 (2005) World Competition, 161 (with Greg Sidak)
  • The Development of European Regulatory Agencies: What the EU Should Learn from the American Experience, 11 (2005) Columbia Journal of European Law 1
  • Access to Content by new Media Platforms: A Review of the EC Competition law Problems, 30 (2005) European Law Review 68
  • The EC Fining Policy for Violations of Competition Law: An Empirical Review of the Commission Decisional Practice and the Community Courts’ Judgments, 1 (2005) European Competition Journal, 401 (with David Henry)
  • Competition Policy and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, 8 (2003) European Foreign Affairs Review, 153 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • Règles de Concurrence et Partenariat Euro-Méditerranéen : Echec ou Succès, (2003) Revue de Droit International Economique, pp. 47-102 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • Competition between Rules and Rules of Competition: A Legal and Economic Analysis of the Proposed Modernization of the Enforcement of EC Competition Law, 9 (2002) Columbia Journal of European Law, 1
  • Regulation Issues in Establishment and Management of Network Infrastructure: The Impact of Network Convergence, 3 (2002) Journal of Network Industries, 99 (with Christophe Humpe)
  • Regulatory Issues Raised by Network Convergence: The Case of Multi-Utilities, 2 (2001) Journal of Network Industries, 113
  • Regulatory Challenges Created by Multi-Utility Undertakings: The Example of “Telelectric” Companies, 11 (2000) Utilities Law Review, 162
  • Post-Liberalization Challenges in Telecommunications, Balancing Antitrust and Sector-specific Regulation – Tentative Lessons from the Experiences of the United States, New Zeland, Chile and Australia, 23 (2000) World Competition, 27
  • Institutional Aspects of Telecommunications Regulatory Reforms in the European Union: An Analysis of the Role of National Regulatory Authorities, 1 (2000) Journal of Network Industries, 5
  • Regulatory Co-opetition, 3 (2000) Journal of International Economic Law, 235 (with Daniel Esty).
  • Controlling Market Power in Telecommunications: Antitrust vs. Sector-specific Regulation, 14 (1999) Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 919 (with Michel Kerf).
  • Droit Européen de la Concurrence et Protection de l’Environnement, Aménagement-Environment, special issue 1999, 44
  • L’Ouverture à la Concurrence des Entreprises de Réseau: Analyse des Principaux Débats du Processus de Libéralisation, (1999/1-2) Cahiers de Droit Européen, 13
  • Environmental Protection Policies and International Competitiveness: A Conceptual Framework, 32 (1998) Journal of World Trade, 5 (with Daniel Esty)
  • Market Access, Competitiveness, and Harmonization: Environmental Protection in Regional Trade Agreements, 21 (1997) Harvard Environmental Law Review, 265 (with Daniel Esty)
  • Trade and Environmental Protection in the Context of World Trade Rules: A View from the European Union, (1997) 2 European Foreign Affairs Review, 33
  • Limiting the Scope of Article 82 of the EC Treaty: What can the EU Learn from the US Supreme Court’s Judgment in Trinko in the wake of Microsoft, IMS, and Deutsche Telekom, forthcoming Common Market Law Review (2004)
  • Trade and Environment: Some Lessons from Castlemaine Tooheys (Australia) and Danish Bottles (European Community), 44 (1995) International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 41 (with Raoul Stewardson)
  • Trade and Environmental Protection: Community Harmonization and National Environmental Standards, in A. Barav & D. Wyatt, Eds., 13 (1994) Yearbook of European Law, Oxford University Press, 151
  • Free Trade and Environmental Protection in an Integrated Market: A Survey of the Case-Law of the United States Supreme Court and the European Court of Justice, 2 (1993) Journal of Transnational Law and Policy, 14
  • Chapters in books
  • Cartel Damages Claims in the European Union: Have We Only Seen the Tip of the Iceberg? in N. Charbit and E. Ramundo, Eds., William E. Kovacic, An Antitrust Tribute, Liber Amicorum – Volume II, Institute of Competition Law, 2014, at 257 (with Laurie-Anne Grelier)
  • The EU Competition Fining System, in Geradin & Lianos, Research Handbook in European Competition Law, Volume II : Enforcement and Procedure, Edward Elgar, 2013, at 328, (with Christos Malamataris and John Wileur)
  • The Counterfactual Method in EU Competition Law: The Cornerstone of the Effects-Based Approach in Bourgeois and Waelbroeck, Eds., Ten Years of Effect–Based Approach in EU Competition Law, Bruylant, 2012, (with Ianis Girgenson)
  • Judicial Review in European Union Competition Law: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment in Derenne & Merola, Eds., The Role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Competition Law Cases, Bruylant 2012, at 21. (with Nicolas Petit)
  • Industrial Policy and European Merger Control – A Reassessment, in Annual Proceedings of the Fordham Corporate Law Institute 2012, at 353 (with Ianis Girgenson).
  • Standards, Intellectual Property and European Competition Policy. A Tribute to Rector Paul Demaret in I. Govaere and D. Hanf, Eds., Scrutinizing Internal and External Dimensions of European Law, Pieter Lang, 2013, at 589.
  • Taking contracts Seriously: The Meaning of the Voluntary Commitment to Licence Essential Patents on “Fair and Reasonable” Terms, in S. Anderman and A. Ezrachi, Intellectual Property and Competition Law: New Frontiers, Oxford University Press 2011, at (with Roger Brooks)
  • What’s Wrong with Royalties in High Technology Industries?, in G. Manne and J. Wright, Eds., Regulating Innovation: Competition Policy and Patent Law under Uncertainty, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment: Producer Responsibility: A Review of the Initiatives in the EC, (1996) European Environmental Law Review, 341 (with A.M. Welker)
  • Is the Guidance Paper on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article 102 TFEU to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct Useful? in F. Etro and I. Kokkoris, Eds,Challenges in the Enforcement of Article 102, Oxford University Press, 2010, at 37.
  • Extraterritoriality, Comity and Cooperation in EC Competition Law in A. Guzman, Ed., Cooperation, Comity, and Competition Policy, Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Price Discrimination in the Postal Sector and Competition Law, in M. Crew and P. Kleindorfer, Eds, Reinventing the Postal Sector in an Electronic Age, Edward Elgar, 2010.
  • Reverse Hold-Ups: The (Often Ignored) Risks Faced by Innovators in Standardized Areas in The Pros and Cons of Standard-Setting, Swedish Competition Authority, 2010.
  • Abuse of dominance in the postal sector: the contribution of the Guidance Paper on Article 82 EC, in M. Crew and P. Kleindorfer, Eds, Heightening Competition in the Postal and Delivery Sector, Edward Elgar, 2009. (with David Henry)
  • Abusive Pricing in an IP Licensing Context: An EC Competition Law Analysis, in C.D. Elhermann and M. Marquis, European Competition Law Annual 2007: A Reformed Approach to Article 82 EC, Hart Publishing, 2008.
  • Efficiency claims in EC competition law and sector-specific regulation in H. Ullrich, Ed., The Evolution Of European Competition Law Whose Regulation, Which Competition?, Edward Elgar, 2006.
  • La politique industrielle sous les tirs croisés de la mondialisation et du droit communautaire de la concurrence, A. Mourre, Ed., Mondialisation, Politique Industrielle et Droit Communautaire de la Concurrence, Bruylant, 2006, at 3 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • European and American Approaches to Antitrust Remedies and the Institutional Design of Regulation in Telecommunications, in M. Cave, S. Majumdar, and I. Vogelsang, Eds. Handbook of Telecommunications Economics, Vol. 2, Oxford University Press, 2006 (with Greg Sidak)
  • Judicial Remedies Under EC Competition Law: Complex Issues Arising from the Modernization Process in International Antitrust Law & Policy: Fordham Corporate Law 2005 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • The Development of Agencies at EU and National Levels: Conceptual Analysis and Proposals for Reform in, P. Eeckhout and T. Tridimas, Eds., Yearbook of European Law, Oxford University Press, 2005 (with Nicolas Petit)
  • Competition Law in the new Member States: Where do we come from? Where do we go?, in D. Geradin, Ed., Modernisation and Enlargement: Two Major Challenges for EC Competition Law, Intersentia, 2005, at 273 (with David Henry)
  • Regulatory Co-opetition: Transcending the Regulatory Competition Debate in The Politics of Regulation: Institutions and Regulatory Reforms for the Age of Governance, J. Jordana and D. Levi-Faur, Eds., Edward Elgar, 2006 (with Joe McCahery)
  • Levelling the Playing Field: Is the World Trade Organization Adequately Equipped to Prevent Anti-Competitive Practices in Telecommunications?, in D. Geradin and D. Luff, Eds., The WTO
  • and Global Convergence in Telecommunications and Audio-Visual Services, Cambridge University Press, 2004 (with Michel Kerf)
  • L’application décentralisée du droit de la concurrence dans les secteurs libéralisés – L’exemple du secteur des communications électroniques, in P. Nihoul, Ed., La décentralisation dans l’application du droit européen de la concurrence – Un rôle accru pour le praticien, Bruylant, 2004, at 165 (avec Pierre Larouche)
  • The Liberalisation of Postal Services in the European Union: An Analysis of Directive 97/67, in D. Geradin, Ed., The Liberalisation of Postal Services in the European Union, Kluwer Law International, forthcoming 2002, at 91 (with Christophe Humpe)
  • EC Competition and Environmental Protection, in H. Somsen, Ed., Yearbook of European Environmental Law, Volume II, Oxford University Press, 2002, at 118
  • Dealing with Environmental Issues in an Integrated Market: The Regulatory Harmonization Policy of the European Community, R. Steinberg, Ed., The Greening of Trade Law? A Comparison of International Trade Organizations on Environmental Issues Rowman & Littlefield, 2002, at 117
  • Regulatory Co-opetition, in Esty and Geradin, Eds., Regulatory Competition and Economic Integration: Comparative Perspectives, Oxford University Press, 2000, at 30 (with Daniel Esty)
  • The Opening of State Monopolies to Competition: Main Issues of the Liberalization Process in, D. Geradin Ed., The Liberalization of State Monopolies in the European Union and Beyond, Kluwer Law International, 1999, at 181
  • Quel Contrôle pour les Aides d’Etat? in CDVA Ed., Les Aides d’Etat en Droit Communautaire et National, Bruylant, 1999, at 61
  • Resolving Key WTO Issues: A Lawyer’s View in, D. Brack and H. Ward, Eds., Trade, Investment and Environment, 1999, at 91
  • Les Compétences Respectives de la Communauté et des Etats Membres dans le Domaine de l’Environnement: Base Juridique, Subsidiarité et Proportionnalité in J. Dutheil de la Rochère, Ed., Le Droit Communautaire de L’environnement: Mise en Oeuvre et Perspectives, La Documentation Française, 1998, at 33.
  • Environmental Protection in Regional Trade Agreements in P. Demaret et al., Eds., Regionalism and Multilateralism after the Uruguay Round, European Interuniversity Press, 1997, at 541 (with Daniel Esty)
  • Balancing Free Trade and Environmental Protection – The Interplay between the European Court of justice and the Community Legislator in Cameron, Demaret, Geradin, Eds., Trade and the Environment – The Search for Balance, Cameron & May, 1994, at 204.

Working papers

  • Refusal to supply and margin squeeze: A discussion of why the “Telefonica exceptions” are wrong. (TILEC Discussion Paper Series, 2011-009), available at
  • The Necessary Limits to the Control of “Excessive” Prices by Competition Authorities – A View from Europe, 2007, available on SSRN at
  • Twenty Years of Liberalization of Network Industries in the European Union: Where Do We Go Now?, 2006, available on SSRN at
  • DG Comp’s Discussion Paper on Article 82: Implications of the Proposed Framework and Antitrust Rules for Dynamically Competitive Industries (with Christian Ahlborn, Vincenzi Denicolo, and Jorge Padilla), 2005, working paper available on SSRN at
  • The Concept of Dominance in EC Competition Law in GCLC Research Papers on Article 82 EC, Global Competition Law Center, 2005 (with Nicolas Petit, Mike Walker, Paul Hofer and Frédéric Louis), available on SSRN at

Short Articles

  • “Excessive Pricing: In Reply”, Competition Law Insight, 10 October 2006 (with Miguel Rato).
  • Antitrust vs. Sector Specific Regulation in Telecom: The Impact on Competitiveness, Public Policy for the Private Sector, February 2005 (with Isabel Neto and Michel Kerf)
  • Antitrust vs. Sector-specific Regulation in Telecom: What Works Best?, Public Policy for the Private Sector, February 2005 (with Isabel Neto and Michel Kerf)
  • Antitrust vs. Sector Specific Regulation in Telecom: A Close Look at Interconnection, Public Policy for the Private Sector, February 2005 (with Isabel Neto and Michel Kerf)